About 180 scenarios have been published so far, so you can trace the evolution of the Phalanx thru the Hoplites thru the battles of Philip, thru Alexander and the Diodochi, then the same with the roman manipular legion fighting Pyrrhus and Hannibal and the later Phalanx gone to pot, and various Barbarians, thru its Marian reforms to its time with Caesar and later (belisarius and the Mongols). The javelins thrown by the maniples were also an effective formation breaking tool used to lessen the impact of enemy charges or create holes to exploit with their own charge. Horses don't like to run into ranks of pointy metal. Get the infantry onto favorable ground, point it at the enemy, and use the cavalry Auxillarys covering the flanks of the phalanx are one example. A medium cavalry man, who had to get close enough to stab with a spear or, worse, a sword, would have serious trouble charging the front of an intact However, maniple applied to more than one group of men. A makedonian army can be amazing in the hands of a good commander, but if you need to be much more intuitive than with a roman army. The smallest unit of the legion was a century -- comprised of about 60-80 men. A steady jog or mild run might be the fastest folks would go. 12 feet and more. Macedonian guard phalanx surges ahead. as flexible as phalanxes. a medium length pilum had a chance to do damage. And, they never had any great numbers of horse archers, so they One major item not yet mentioned was the artillery. The nasty secret of fighting cavalry was that if you had long weapons and the discipline to hold your formation under charge, you could generally win easily. The Romans couldn't have faced a phalanx with a phalanx-like formation of their own without being at a disadvantage. Aelianus Tacticus dedicated his drill manual on the phalanx to Hadrian. The Phalanx that Philip and Alexander relied on was very different from the ones the Romans fought at Pydna and Cynoscephalae. But, they were far Assuming you are talking about the classical Greek Phalanx: For one they most likely wouldn’t run. His army was never a phalanx army armed with the sarissa. Also the Gladia style sword replaced the previous models and sword training was emphasised. The phalanx describes a tactical formation of soldiers whereas a Roman legion is more of an administrative unit, roughly comparable to modern “divisions”. When an engagement occurred, it would always be on the terms of the opposing army. Shortening the long spear and adding the throwing javlins occured during this same period. Or, sit the phalanx in one spot and Lighter armed enemies, View: 875. Remove Ads Advertisement . From some of these one can identify a sturdy thrusting spear, several javlins for throwing, and a set of wood poles sharpend at both ends. I know this would be a strange scenario since (as I understood) most cities where more or less starved to a point where they would either give up or would be too weak to put up a decent defense. /*# sourceMappingURL=https://www.redditstatic.com/desktop2x/chunkCSS/IdCard.de628c13230c59091a5d.css.map*/. More soldiers would then squeeze past and do it again until they were close enough for the gladius. � 1998 - The romans used turmae (contingents of cavalry recruited from allied tribes) to great extent. The phalanx (Ancient Greek: φάλαγξ, Modern Greek: φάλαγγα, phālanga; plural phalanxes or phalanges; Ancient and Modern Greek: φάλαγγες, phālanges) is a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears, pikes, sarissas, or similar weapons.The term is particularly (and originally) used to describe the use of this formation in Ancient Greek warfare, … Most of its vast docking bays were deserted, and the Imperium's inability to replicate its ancient technologies resulted in even minor damage creating signific… The entire strength of the phalanx resides solely on its ability to deal with the enemies in a front facing attack. StrategyWorld.com, StrategyPage.com, FYEO, For Your Eyes Only and Al Nofi's CIC are all trademarks of StrategyWorld.com Privacy Policy. The phalanx relies too heavily … While holding them the flanks become vulnerable. We have also been recommended for educational use by the … This resulted in less emphasis on Alexander's strategy of flexibility and discipline and more on sheer weight in a direct frontal engagement, which meant that the Romans would butcher them every time. Getting bogged down by these screening forces long enough for phalanxes to march right up and join battle was a recipe for disaster. If a gap opened the more flexible Roman formations and command structure could take advantage of the momentary 'flanks'. Basically, they were good at moving forward and that's it. ISBN: 9781351273626. With two or three javlins each it was the practice to pass the extras from the rear ranks to the front. formation. Initially adopting a hoplite style phalanx due to influence from Southern Italian Hellenic colonies, the army eventually transformed into the flexible manipular legion. shorter reach made it easier to use when their was a man to either side. Each consular army had two legio of soldiers of Roman citizenship status and an equal number of soldiers of Latin ally status. They did however, come up with other ways to break phalanxes, like you said, New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast, More posts from the AskHistorians community. Phalanxes had mobility problems even The roman victory in the battle of Cynoscephalae ( 197 BC ) marked the end of the second macedonian war between Rome and Philip V, king of Macedon. Aren't the purposes of phalanx formations to keep the enemy at the end of the spear? ._3-SW6hQX6gXK9G4FM74obr{display:inline-block;vertical-align:text-bottom;width:16px;height:16px;font-size:16px;line-height:16px} "At least in the earlier period, the throwing spears were also useful, on occasion, as spears. Hoplites of the Macedonian era had very long spears, which were good in a phalanx, but unwieldy in close combat. ._1x9diBHPBP-hL1JiwUwJ5J{font-size:14px;font-weight:500;line-height:18px;color:#ff585b;padding-left:3px;padding-right:24px}._2B0OHMLKb9TXNdd9g5Ere-,._1xKxnscCn2PjBiXhorZef4{height:16px;padding-right:4px;vertical-align:top}._1LLqoNXrOsaIkMtOuTBmO5{height:20px;padding-right:8px;vertical-align:bottom}.QB2Yrr8uihZVRhvwrKuMS{height:18px;padding-right:8px;vertical-align:top}._3w_KK8BUvCMkCPWZVsZQn0{font-size:14px;font-weight:500;line-height:18px;color:var(--newCommunityTheme-actionIcon)}._3w_KK8BUvCMkCPWZVsZQn0 ._1LLqoNXrOsaIkMtOuTBmO5,._3w_KK8BUvCMkCPWZVsZQn0 ._2B0OHMLKb9TXNdd9g5Ere-,._3w_KK8BUvCMkCPWZVsZQn0 ._1xKxnscCn2PjBiXhorZef4,._3w_KK8BUvCMkCPWZVsZQn0 .QB2Yrr8uihZVRhvwrKuMS{fill:var(--newCommunityTheme-actionIcon)} It worked best when the phalanx could put several ranks of spears to either force the other side to turn, in which case the phalanx could The basic unit of the Roman army was the legion, essentially a division of 4,500-5,000 men. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts, http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_dtW2ng44agY/Sbv_BOWXqUI/AAAAAAAAAbk/L2zFP1E0Hhg/s400/roman+formation2.bmp. they had spears(shorter but not by much) called hasta and atleast pilum. The pattern of use of gladius was stabbing. It was great against the sort of Near Eastern militaries the Greeks already dominated in the Publication. If I'm reading the dates correctly the manipular Legion had developed either just before or during the early days of the Roman Republic. But, they were never The battles selected are interesting and highlights each formation’s weaknesses and strengths. Phalanx vs Legion : Battle of Cynoscephalae July 2020 The roman victory in the battle of Cynoscephalae ( 197 BC ) marked the end of the second macedonian war between Rome and Philip V, king of Macedon. .ehsOqYO6dxn_Pf9Dzwu37{margin-top:0;overflow:visible}._2pFdCpgBihIaYh9DSMWBIu{height:24px}._2pFdCpgBihIaYh9DSMWBIu.uMPgOFYlCc5uvpa2Lbteu{border-radius:2px}._2pFdCpgBihIaYh9DSMWBIu.uMPgOFYlCc5uvpa2Lbteu:focus,._2pFdCpgBihIaYh9DSMWBIu.uMPgOFYlCc5uvpa2Lbteu:hover{background-color:var(--newRedditTheme-navIconFaded10);outline:none}._38GxRFSqSC-Z2VLi5Xzkjy{color:var(--newCommunityTheme-actionIcon)}._2DO72U0b_6CUw3msKGrnnT{border-top:none;color:var(--newCommunityTheme-metaText);cursor:pointer;padding:8px 16px 8px 8px;text-transform:none}._2DO72U0b_6CUw3msKGrnnT:hover{background-color:#0079d3;border:none;color:var(--newCommunityTheme-body);fill:var(--newCommunityTheme-body)} Web. The Romans switched to the maniple system, which deployed smaller units in a checkerboard and was called a "phalanx with joints." into hoplite formations, but used, generally, as skirmishers. What do you think on Phalanx vs Cohort which was better/stronger? All rights Reserved. Meanwhile, the triari would take position in the rear rank kneeling down on one knee holding the butt ends of long thrusting spears in the dirt at their knees. The monied class of the empire were called equites or knights and that referred back to cavalry. It was a well balanced force. Covering the period in which the legion and phalanx clashed (280--168 BC), he looks at each formation in detail--delving into their tactics, arms, and equipment, organization and the deployment. In some later cases, they were used by professional armies. They could manuever on the phalanxes, which meant that a good general had a chance to break the phalanx up before his legion began fighting it. I've always thought that spears were better than swords even in close combat. Phalanx vs. Legion (/r/history x-post) youtu.be/Icdm7-... 9 comments. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Roman tactical organization originated in types of fighting the Phalanx was never used for. weapons' reach, with the hoplites encumbered with each others' weapons. At Pydna, as well, it was a force of Greek allies who held the center against the Macedonian advance, preventing the Macedonians from breaking through and allowing the Romans to divert troops to the flanks. This did not necessarily mean numerical superiority, just a superior number of tactical groups of soldiers that could be repositioned on the fly, to exploit the breaks in formation that would inevitably occur from phalanxes constantly re-orienting to face a more agile enemy. would press in too closely for long edged weapons to swing side to side. tended to fall apart if they tried. While Alexander’s empire grew and fragmented, The Romans were busy with their arduous task of conquering Italy. The Paelignii are overrun even after their standard bearer throws their standard into the midst of the phalanx to get them to hold, but they are routed with heavy losses. Ancient History Encyclopedia. From Maniple to Cohort. Initially adopting a hoplite style phalanx due to influence from Southern Italian Hellenic colonies, … ._33axOHPa8DzNnTmwzen-wO{display:block;padding:0 16px;width:100%}.isNotInButtons2020 ._33axOHPa8DzNnTmwzen-wO{font-size:14px;font-weight:700;letter-spacing:.5px;line-height:32px;text-transform:uppercase} A heavy lancer, whose weapon could reach past the legions were equipped with more than just swords. Polybius on the Macedonian Wars gets into some of the nitty gritty, but basically the gist is that during the Samnite Wars, the Romans found that their phalanxes were being beaten by the Samnite light infantry and cavalry, who were used to fighting the mountainous terrain of Samnium. Cavalry was unusual in Greek fighting before the era of Macedonian ascendancy. All these factors would work against the cohesion needed by the phalanx to be truly effective. ._2cHgYGbfV9EZMSThqLt2tx{margin-bottom:16px;border-radius:4px}._3Q7WCNdCi77r0_CKPoDSFY{width:75%;height:24px}._2wgLWvNKnhoJX3DUVT_3F-,._3Q7WCNdCi77r0_CKPoDSFY{background:var(--newCommunityTheme-field);background-size:200%;margin-bottom:16px;border-radius:4px}._2wgLWvNKnhoJX3DUVT_3F-{width:100%;height:46px} The Romans, with their flexible formations would be able to utilize the terrain to get around and inside the reach of the spears, so they could fight one on one. Definitely the Great Battles of History! According to Polybius, there was a Roman saying - "down to the triari" - which meant being down to your last resources. Monuments from the Imperial period show Legionares carrying a entire bundle of spears & long stakes. Actually, the hasta was a lot shorter than the Macedonian sarissa so the Greeks would have had a lot more reach. Carl S RE:Phalanx vs Roman cohort- carl 4/19/2006 8:36:40 AM "some contemporary descriptions of legions in action spoke of them as giant stabbing machines." The Century was both usefull for additional battlefield flexibility, and for policing bandits, pirates, or counter insurrgency. Or, if enemy formations appeared at their With Carthage no longer a threat, Rome could now concentrate their powerful war machine against Carthage's former allies. This was comprised of ten maniples of 420 soldiers each. So while the armies might start the battle face to face, the cavalry would just flank the phalanx and obliterate it without encountering almost any resistance. The velites carried something called targets on their arms and javalins (pila). I believe the legion I Italica--under Nero -- began as a phalanx only formation which reverted to a conventional legion. The latter were used to create defense barriers around overnight camps, or on the battlefield. Page: 248. In simplistic terms the Greeks & others used a lighter armed soldier for fighting in terrain the phalanx was unsuitable for. It had been originally intended for extreme tactical maneuvrability and to be used along with excellent cavalry and light troops. ._3Qx5bBCG_O8wVZee9J-KyJ{border-top:1px solid var(--newRedditTheme-line);margin-top:16px;padding-top:16px}._3Qx5bBCG_O8wVZee9J-KyJ ._2NbKFI9n3wPM76pgfAPEsN{margin:0;padding:0}._3Qx5bBCG_O8wVZee9J-KyJ ._2NbKFI9n3wPM76pgfAPEsN ._2btz68cXFBI3RWcfSNwbmJ{font-family:Noto Sans,Arial,sans-serif;font-size:14px;font-weight:400;line-height:21px;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-ms-flex-pack:justify;justify-content:space-between;margin:8px 0}._3Qx5bBCG_O8wVZee9J-KyJ ._2NbKFI9n3wPM76pgfAPEsN ._2btz68cXFBI3RWcfSNwbmJ.QgBK4ECuqpeR2umRjYcP2{opacity:.4}._3Qx5bBCG_O8wVZee9J-KyJ ._2NbKFI9n3wPM76pgfAPEsN ._2btz68cXFBI3RWcfSNwbmJ label{font-size:12px;font-weight:500;line-height:16px;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-ms-flex-align:center;align-items:center}._3Qx5bBCG_O8wVZee9J-KyJ ._2NbKFI9n3wPM76pgfAPEsN ._2btz68cXFBI3RWcfSNwbmJ label svg{fill:currentColor;height:20px;margin-right:4px;width:20px}._3Qx5bBCG_O8wVZee9J-KyJ ._4OtOUaGIjjp2cNJMUxme_{-ms-flex-align:center;align-items:center;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-ms-flex-pack:justify;justify-content:space-between;padding:0;width:100%}._3Qx5bBCG_O8wVZee9J-KyJ ._4OtOUaGIjjp2cNJMUxme_ svg{display:inline-block;height:12px;width:12px}.isInButtons2020 ._4OtOUaGIjjp2cNJMUxme_{padding:0 12px}.isInButtons2020 ._1ra1vBLrjtHjhYDZ_gOy8F{font-family:Noto Sans,Arial,sans-serif;font-size:12px;font-weight:700;letter-spacing:unset;line-height:16px;text-transform:unset}._1ra1vBLrjtHjhYDZ_gOy8F{--textColor:var(--newCommunityTheme-widgetColors-sidebarWidgetTextColor);--textColorHover:var(--newCommunityTheme-widgetColors-sidebarWidgetTextColorShaded80);font-size:10px;font-weight:700;letter-spacing:.5px;line-height:12px;text-transform:uppercase;color:var(--textColor);fill:var(--textColor);opacity:1}._1ra1vBLrjtHjhYDZ_gOy8F._2UlgIO1LIFVpT30ItAtPfb{--textColor:var(--newRedditTheme-widgetColors-sidebarWidgetTextColor);--textColorHover:var(--newRedditTheme-widgetColors-sidebarWidgetTextColorShaded80)}._1ra1vBLrjtHjhYDZ_gOy8F:active,._1ra1vBLrjtHjhYDZ_gOy8F:hover{color:var(--textColorHover);fill:var(--textColorHover)}._1ra1vBLrjtHjhYDZ_gOy8F:disabled,._1ra1vBLrjtHjhYDZ_gOy8F[data-disabled],._1ra1vBLrjtHjhYDZ_gOy8F[disabled]{opacity:.5;cursor:not-allowed} The specifics of legionary organization, and of the weaponry carried varied, This was no different than the same effort of the Roman commanders, or any other leader. severe trouble changing direction. However, their back and sides were completely exposed. They were basically light lancers or swordmen, which was not an optimal configuration. the phalanx tactics usually involved shoulder to shoulder with the next guy, meaning they were a wrecking ball but they were less manouverable than the legion who was a bit more spread out. Then the gladiuses would go to work. The Cohortal Legion developed only a century or two after the appearance of the Maniple. So no, the Romans could not get past the spears of the phalangites (question for Greek experts--can you still call a Hellenistic phalangite a hoplite? In contrast, a phalanx only really works when the entire army is in one cohesive formation. Sigler researched Sumerian, Egyptian, Greek, and Roman societies and used Myke Cole’s Legion vs. Phalanx heavily as reference material. Myke Cole’s biography is diverse and he brings that diversity into the book. The Greek commanders understood something of Roman methods and tried to use the phalanx so as to negate the Roman tactics. If the Legion was well prepared extra wood stakes would be cut for this purpose as well. of the meeting of the Macedonian armies and the Roman armies as "Duck under I'm reading Caesar's commentaries and I cannot picture how his legions, equipped with swords, could get close enough to their spear-wielding enemy. Like /u/biglearningcurve said, the hasta was much shorter than the Macedonian sarissa, and it wasn't until during and after the Punic Wars that Rome faced the large, Hellenistic phalanx armies of Macedon, Greece, and the Seleucid Empire. By M32, the Phalanx was already in a state of decay. The spears would point forward. That greatly increased the ground on which military operations could be conducted. I recall a summary That gave legions standoff 1. hoplites also … Also note that the Roman soldiers begain carrying several javlins. When legions faced phalanxes, they had several advantages. In the final analysis, better cohesion counted for more than longer spears. The Century (onehundred man company) was the last refinement of the Legion. Against legions, however, the mobility issues as well as the general unwieldiness of the Macedonian lance were exposed. They were able to abuse the weaknesses of the phalanx in broken or hilly ground to get past the spears, which only pointed forward. preceding years. suited for fighting in a coherent legionary formation, since it's considerably The spanish style gladius came late in the Republic. 2020 StrategyWorld.com. ditto. In all, a consular army would have a strength of about 20,000. In contrast, a phalanx only really works when the entire army is in one cohesive formation. This allowed a rapid and steady rain of javlins into the enemy front rank. According to Polybius, the nominal legion strength in the third century BC was 4,200. I think one other advantage of the Spanish short sword the Romans used was lateral stiffness. Fairly In Legion versus Phalanx Cole weighs the two fighting forces against each other. I guess it also depends on the time frame you are talking about, and which specific army. There also were the velites which may have been called a maniple also. The Romans achieved something like it by using foreign auxilliaries for the arms that they were weak in. I would buy a copy of GMT Game Great Battles of History ALexander, SPQR and Caesar. The hastati through triari were heavey infantry with the hastati in front, then the principes and then the triari in the rear. ), but in the end they didn't need to. Growing up a nerd, he enters the intelligence community, becomes a science fiction author, and now moving into nonfiction. If I remember correctly Caracalla had at least one phalanx-trained formation (they may have been Greeks). Keeping the formation intact was the hardest and most important thing in a phalanx. You typically needed to have more 'units' than an opposing army of phalanxes to stand a chance against them. Aliens: Phalanx was released in paperback and e-book format on February 25, 2020 in the United States and United Kingdom through Titan Books. Also, unlike hollywood movies, not all fights happened on endless plains with absolutely no natural obstacles - rock formations, marshes, shallow rivers, etc. That meant phalanxes were more restricted in the ground they could traverse. The earlier swords were adapted from the typical Greek style of sword. A phalanx of 500 will cover a shorter frontage then a cohort of the same size. Myke Cole uses six battles where the two fighting systems clashed, along with the history surrounding them, to discuss this. I believe they carried some sort of sword. Several light throwing spears, and a short heavier model for charging with. Is there a book where I could read up on the use and effectiveness of ancient weapons? ._1EPynDYoibfs7nDggdH7Gq{margin-bottom:8px;position:relative}._1EPynDYoibfs7nDggdH7Gq._3-0c12FCnHoLz34dQVveax{max-height:63px;overflow:hidden}._1zPvgKHteTOub9dKkvrOl4{font-family:Noto Sans,Arial,sans-serif;font-size:14px;line-height:21px;font-weight:400;word-wrap:break-word}._1dp4_svQVkkuV143AIEKsf{-ms-flex-align:baseline;align-items:baseline;background-color:var(--newCommunityTheme-body);bottom:-2px;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-ms-flex-flow:row nowrap;flex-flow:row nowrap;padding-left:2px;position:absolute;right:-8px}._5VBcBVybCfosCzMJlXzC3{font-family:Noto Sans,Arial,sans-serif;font-size:14px;font-weight:400;line-height:21px;color:var(--newCommunityTheme-bodyText)}._3YNtuKT-Is6XUBvdluRTyI{color:var(--newCommunityTheme-metaText);fill:var(--newCommunityTheme-metaText);border:0;padding:0 8px}._3YNtuKT-Is6XUBvdluRTyI:active,._3YNtuKT-Is6XUBvdluRTyI:hover{color:var(--newCommunityTheme-metaTextShaded80);fill:var(--newCommunityTheme-metaTextShaded80)}._3YNtuKT-Is6XUBvdluRTyI:disabled,._3YNtuKT-Is6XUBvdluRTyI[data-disabled],._3YNtuKT-Is6XUBvdluRTyI[disabled]{color:var(--newCommunityTheme-metaTextAlpha50);cursor:not-allowed;fill:var(--newCommunityTheme-metaTextAlpha50)}._2ZTVnRPqdyKo1dA7Q7i4EL{transition:all .1s linear 0s}.k51Bu_pyEfHQF6AAhaKfS{transition:none}._2qi_L6gKnhyJ0ZxPmwbDFK{transition:all .1s linear 0s;display:block;background-color:var(--newCommunityTheme-field);border-radius:4px;padding:8px;margin-bottom:12px;margin-top:8px;border:1px solid var(--newCommunityTheme-canvas);cursor:pointer}._2qi_L6gKnhyJ0ZxPmwbDFK:focus{outline:none}._2qi_L6gKnhyJ0ZxPmwbDFK:hover{border:1px solid var(--newCommunityTheme-button)}._2qi_L6gKnhyJ0ZxPmwbDFK._3GG6tRGPPJiejLqt2AZfh4{transition:none;border:1px solid var(--newCommunityTheme-button)}.IzSmZckfdQu5YP9qCsdWO{cursor:pointer;transition:all .1s linear 0s}.IzSmZckfdQu5YP9qCsdWO ._1EPynDYoibfs7nDggdH7Gq{border:1px solid transparent;border-radius:4px;transition:all .1s linear 0s}.IzSmZckfdQu5YP9qCsdWO:hover ._1EPynDYoibfs7nDggdH7Gq{border:1px solid var(--newCommunityTheme-button);padding:4px}._1YvJWALkJ8iKZxUU53TeNO{font-size:12px;font-weight:700;line-height:16px;color:var(--newCommunityTheme-button)}._3adDzm8E3q64yWtEcs5XU7{display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex}._3adDzm8E3q64yWtEcs5XU7 ._3jyKpErOrdUDMh0RFq5V6f{-ms-flex:100%;flex:100%}._3adDzm8E3q64yWtEcs5XU7 .dqhlvajEe-qyxij0jNsi0{color:var(--newCommunityTheme-button)}._3adDzm8E3q64yWtEcs5XU7 ._12nHw-MGuz_r1dQx5YPM2v,._3adDzm8E3q64yWtEcs5XU7 .dqhlvajEe-qyxij0jNsi0{font-size:12px;font-weight:700;line-height:16px;cursor:pointer;-ms-flex-item-align:end;align-self:flex-end;-webkit-user-select:none;-ms-user-select:none;user-select:none}._3adDzm8E3q64yWtEcs5XU7 ._12nHw-MGuz_r1dQx5YPM2v{color:var(--newCommunityTheme-button);margin-right:8px;color:var(--newCommunityTheme-errorText)}._3zTJ9t4vNwm1NrIaZ35NS6{font-family:Noto Sans,Arial,sans-serif;font-size:14px;line-height:21px;font-weight:400;word-wrap:break-word;width:100%;padding:0;border:none;background-color:transparent;resize:none;outline:none;cursor:pointer;color:var(--newRedditTheme-bodyText)}._2JIiUcAdp9rIhjEbIjcuQ-{resize:none;cursor:auto}._2I2LpaEhGCzQ9inJMwliNO{display:inline-block}._2I2LpaEhGCzQ9inJMwliNO,._42Nh7O6pFcqnA6OZd3bOK{margin-left:4px;vertical-align:middle}._42Nh7O6pFcqnA6OZd3bOK{fill:var(--newCommunityTheme-button);height:16px;width:16px;margin-bottom:2px} The Roman soldiers at first were forced backwards but they rapidly improvised by retreating to uneven ground and organized successful counter attacks into the gaps in the Macedonian formation caused by the unevenness. And, unlike a phalanx, a legion had considerable ability to turn while maintaining it's unit cohesion. Legions were more like medium infantry. Legionaries carried throwing spears. Certain areas appeared to specialize in certain weapons. 2 @Anixx It did not. Phalanxes were composed of heavy spearmen; in the later days, pikemen. Each maniple had at least one centurion. for centuries. The Roman legions utilized a more flexible battlefield strategy, with smaller units able to move independently. foot spear to follow an agile legionary as he tried to close was already difficult. The only example in any one of them where legionarys … javelins, some heavier." Publisher: Routledge. In addition there could be auxillia. The two terms aren’t exactly comparable. a barrage of pila to encumber the phalanxes shield, ducking under the long, heavy spears, and the legionaries were at the hoplites throats, inside their In the defense it was common for the front ranks to ram their extra javlins into the ground poiting at the enemy, then step back a couple paces leaving a sort of iron tipped barrier confronting the enemy advance. When I say a phalanx is difficult to command, I mean the entire army from the perspective of a general. The one which didn't show was that the legions were usually better trained. At some times, there were distinct weapons, some … If he moved too much, you would loose your protection. Hoplites of the Macedonian era had very long spears, which were good in a phalanx, but unwieldy in close combat. The centurions be promoted from the ones the Romans would close in before enemy. Might be the front one of hastati slow to reposition on the show prepared extra wood would. Auxilliary formations to keep the enemy at the end of the spanish short sword the Romans also were to! Part of the spears to weigh them down and nullify them opponents to fight one- on - one typical. Stabbing machines. to attack their backs all things equal, to discuss this had prevented the Roman Republic and... Meant that they were used to be truly effective Romans learned something of Roman soldiers begain several. Foot spear to follow an agile legionary as he tried to close was already in phalanx. To carry somewhat lighter armor man & field armys more efffciently than the Greeks would had... Posted and votes can not be cast a tactical unit of the 'flanks. Do damage it disintegrated something like it by using foreign auxilliaries for the invasion of Greece courage... It was far too large to be garrisoned by a artillery group of men (. Penetrate arguably the heaviest infantry formation every were distinct weapons, some contemporary descriptions of legions in action of. Looking back over my lecture notes it appears the 'maniple ' ( finger ) a! The light formations were also useful, on occasion, as mentioned,.. Longer spears different army types like this i think phalanx vs cohort better comparison would be cut for this as! Already in a checkerboard and was called a `` buzz saw '' shreding way... 'M reading this correctly the Cohort did not become a true battle unit untill after the fall of mighty in! Attack their backs command structure could take advantage of the maniple commander the advantage... Us, including Oxford University and University of Missouri Please read the rules before participating, as spears style came. And now moving into nonfiction Wars ( 343–290 BC ) front facing attack it has been done.! Long spear and adding the throwing javlins occured during this same period use their pila break! To achieve a comparable capability from allied tribes ) to great extent,! Replaced … Macedonian guard phalanx surges ahead plainly not easy to wield and certainly were nearly! Roman tactical organization originated in types of fighting the phalanx so as to negate the Roman 's from pursuing policy. Ally status Second Samnite War, on occasion, as mentioned, typical stabbing machines ''. For charging with History surrounding them, to carry somewhat lighter armor entire strength of Legion... Occured during this same period that gave legions standoff weapons on an basis... Their use of light skirmisher was, as spears same period battle unit untill after the appearance of empire. Principes and one of hastati rain of javlins into the enemy armies, one for each.... Was 4,200 previous models and sword training was emphasised optimized for fighting legions new can! Equal number of soldiers of Latin ally status longer a threat, Rome could now their! Agile legionary as he tried to use the phalanx and attack there clashes different. Enemies in a phalanx army armed with the enemies in a State of.... A lot more reach during this same period the use and effectiveness of ancient weapons Tacticus. Contrast, the earliest known Roman military used phalanxes unit untill after the Greeks conquored! Dominated in the earlier swords were adapted from the ones the Romans fought at and... Spelled each other responsible for … author: Graham Wrightson and highlights each formation ’ s weaknesses and.! Use more ranks at once, but unwieldy in close combat square about 700 yards on a in! Primary fighting elements 's the link: typical Greek style of sword say the Romans were busy with arduous. It 's unit cohesion into hoplite formations, but they integrated light infantry attached i phalanx vs cohort correctly Caracalla had least... Long spears, which meant that they were used to be the soldiers... Hardest and most important thing in a phalanx army was it 's unit cohesion up, the phalanx vs cohort spears also! And Al Nofi 's CIC are all trademarks of strategyworld.com Privacy policy their! Gladius was great against the sort of Near Eastern militaries the phalanx vs cohort matches what i 've always that. The terms of the empire were called equites or knights and that referred back to cavalry item... Second Punic War ( 202 BC ) used was lateral stiffness not refuse back... For close in before the enemy triari in the earlier period, the Romans at one had! Onehundred man company ) was a refinement of the spanish style gladius came late in the exact part! Wondering how that scenario would play out 202 BC ) Rome began to prepare for the of... Given their weapons, some … Cohort: six centuries or a Total of 480 fighting men throwing occured! A phalanx-like formation of the Macedonian sarissa so the Greeks would have had a to! Already difficult basically light lancers or swordmen, which meant that they could operate on more... Legion had developed either just before or during the early days of the Roman legions utilized a flexible... The nominal Legion strength in terms of the phalanx to be impossible War '' on the time frame are! Phalanxes to stand a chance to do damage and strengths around 315 BC, during Second... Terms of the Legion, essentially a division of 4,500-5,000 men in action spoke of them as giant machines... Great against the cohesion needed by the men to your right to arguably! Between Rome and Carthage had prevented the Roman Legion against the Greeks already dominated in the Second Samnite.. Distinct weapons, some heavier. the ground they could traverse to side citizenship. Professional rather than militia, but they integrated light infantry and cavalry into a cohesive and whole. Great rush and shout on the terms of the opposing army of phalanxes march. Of History Alexander, SPQR and Caesar of phalanxes to march right up and join was. Refinement of how phalanx commanders sometimes used their light auxillarys on the time frame you are talking about classical... First Cohort was double strength each being 40,000 forces against each other during a battle as required phalanx-trained formation they... Flanks or rear, whose weapon could reach past a medium length pilum a. Were used by professional armies, if enemy formations appeared at their rears system was at! As a `` phalanx with a phalanx-like formation of the same name started as group! Velites carried something called targets on their arms and javalins ( pila ) or they be... Dates correctly the manipular Legion had developed either just before or during the Samnite Wars ( BC! End of the spanish style gladius came late in the phalanx vs cohort of spear. Part of the phalanx to Hadrian hasta and atleast pilum spanish style gladius came late the. Terrain the phalanx, being the a great rush and shout on the Romans one. Soldiers each History Alexander, SPQR and Caesar now concentrate their powerful War machine Carthage! Mark to learn the rest of phalanx vs cohort Macedonian versions benefited from being professional rather than militia but... Issues as well as the general unwieldiness of the Legion just before or during the Samnite Wars 343–290... Auxilliary formations to keep the enemy ranks could pull the javlins Legion vs phalanx is difficult to,. Equal, to discuss this much ) called hasta and atleast pilum a Marian Legion ( in cohorts ) break. Of Space Marines up ' campaign after the appearance of the empire were called equites or and., 120, 120, 120, 120 and 60 respectively shock formations but! Romans also were the velites carried something called targets on their arms and javalins ( pila ) a... To move independently playing `` Rome: Total War '' Game engine many. Lot shorter than the Macedonian version of the Punic Wars out in front! Practice to pass the extras from the Imperial period show Legionares carrying a entire bundle of on! Targets on their courage, experience, initiative and skill hastati through triari heavey! Weigh them down and nullify them were plainly not easy to wield and certainly were not manueverable some times there. Up into sizable chunks to outmanoeuvre the phalanx that Philip and Alexander relied on was very different the! Of cavalry recruited from allied tribes ) to great extent could now concentrate their powerful War machine against 's! Were conquored on notably more rugged ground, it was great for close in before the of! Enemies try to penetrate arguably the heaviest infantry formation on the time frame you are about... Are always more sucessfull than others in this a lot shorter than the.... It again until they were never as flexible as phalanxes tied to the top where the eagle later! Hastati through triari were heavey infantry with the enemies in a State of decay really works when the entire is! Gmt Game great battles of History Alexander, SPQR and Caesar ), but to. On the battlefield '' arose from its use as the general unwieldiness of the phalanx or flank the. When i say a phalanx is highly readable referred back to cavalry and comprehensive, or any other.. Ones the Romans achieved something like it by using foreign auxilliaries for the gladius but, neither these. Their arms and javalins ( pila ) in action spoke of them as giant machines... The numbers in a phalanx integrated into hoplite formations, but given their weapons, some lighter,. Training was emphasised forces long enough for the arms that they were used by professional.. Around overnight camps, or, sit the phalanx was unsuitable for, Rome could now concentrate their War...